Tag Archives: Political Heritage

James Mooney and Alan C. Reiley

James Mooney and Alan C. Reiley Four principles of how organizations should be structured: Coordination through unity of command, emphasized the importance of strong executive leadership exercised through a hierarchical chain of command. “scalar” principal, the vertical division of labor … Continue reading

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Leonard D. White

Leonard D. White In “White and the Study of Public Administration”, White studied the uniformity, practicalness, scientificalness and importance of public administration based on four basic assumptions: administration is a single process; the study of administration should start from the … Continue reading

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Frederick Winslow Taylor

Frederick Winslow Taylor     In Denhardt and Catlaw, Frederick Taylor stated that the best management is a true science, resting upon defined laws, rules, and principles. Managers need to design and conduct experiments, to discover the most efficient techniques available, to … Continue reading

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Luther Gulick

Luther Gulick In Denhardt and Catlaw, Gulick studied administration as a science, he stated that administration is a net of discretion and action. He raised four steps to create new agencies designed to carry out new programs: 1) to define … Continue reading

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Appleby, Svara & Harmon

Appleby Appleby emphasized the importance of administrators as significant policy actors. He stated that administrators are laying down rules for the future, and are determining what the law is, what it means in terms of action. Public administration is policymaking. … Continue reading

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Willoughby

Willoughby Willoughby extended the branches of government. In another words, he distinguished politics in the perspective of executive and public management in the perspective of administration. Willoughby thought there are five classes of governmental powers: the legislative, judicial, executive, electorate, … Continue reading

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Goodnow

Goodnow Goodnow reconciled theory and reality. Politics is concerned with the expression of the will of the state in policies; administration is concerned with the execution of that will. Legislative centralization is often accompanied by administrative decentralization. The formal legal … Continue reading

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