James Mooney and Alan C. Reiley
Four principles of how organizations should be structured:
- Coordination through unity of command, emphasized the importance of strong executive leadership exercised through a hierarchical chain of command.
- “scalar” principal, the vertical division of labor among various organizational levels, general and private
- The functional principle referred to the horizontal division of labor, infantry and artillery
- The relationship between line and staff: the line represents authority; the staff represents ideas and advice