Leonard D. White
In “White and the Study of Public Administration”, White studied the uniformity, practicalness, scientificalness and importance of public administration based on four basic assumptions: administration is a single process; the study of administration should start from the base of management; administration is transforming into a science; it is the heart of the problem of modern government.
White stated that public affairs exist in different government levels in general; therefore, public administration could be treated as a single process without division.
White defined public administration as the management of men and materials in the accomplishment of the purposes of the state; its objective is the most efficient utilization of the resources at the disposal of officials and employees. Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy as declared by the competent authorities. Goodnow stated that the pubic law fixes the organization and determines the competence of the administrative authorities, and indicates to the individual remedies for the violation of his rights. In this sense, public administration is distinguished from public law based on their purposes, where administration starts from the base of efficient management while public law starts from the base of protecting the public rights.
White thought that the art of administration is the direction, coordination, and control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective. It is in the transformation to a science because of the developing material equipment and improving of profession.
As the society develops, more professional knowledge become necessary in administration level. White thought that the traditional concept of the kernel of legislative in the separation of powers is transferring to the establishment of government as the task of administration, operating within the areas that are circumscribed by legislatures and courts.