Adam Smith discusses the division of labor from the perspective economics. The division of labor is the product of development of the society and economy. It improves efficiency and facilitates the development of the industry. Similarly, Henri Fayol concludes that division of work produces more and better work with the same effort, since the workers could concentrate on one specific work, which improves their expertise and efficiency. From the perspective of management, Henri Fayol concludes his general principles of management, based on his managing experiences.
Different from Adam and Henri, Marx analyzes the division of labor as the cause of capitalism and development of history. Division of labor causes distinction of social classes and hierarchy.
The division of labor is the foundation of economic development. Different from Adam Smith, Weber discusses division of labor from the perspective of sociology. Weber thinks that division of labor should be correlated with human reason. Division of labor improves efficiency; meanwhile, it eliminates the privileges in hierarchy. Division of labor changes the whole structure of the society. Division of labor is not the only force to promote the development of the society. People’s reason is the central force. Ideas and ideals guide the development of the society and human beings.
Different from the emphases of the former fathers of pubic and social theories, Sigmund Freud discourses the unconscious social and cultural influences that society/organizations/groups make on individuals. The unconsciousness is another way to push people to create their history and play a significant role in promoting the development of the society.
All of these articles address the fundamental thinking and research of the development of the society. They all explore the causes of the development of history and human beings and how public administration reacts up on individuals necessarily and effectively. They are definitely the human intellectual heritage.