Studies on Hysteria

Sigmund Freud

Freud discusses the conscious and unconscious minds, which are hidden under the surface of groups, organizations and the society. Freud states that the wishes and thoughts that we repress into the unconscious mind return into our lives but they return in different forms, so we do not recognize them for what they are (Denhardt, 2014).

Individuals use groups and organizations not only to accomplish established ends but also to serve as direct sources of need gratification—to provide a sense of security, a defense against the vagaries of an uncertain world. The functions and influences of individuals and groups are mutual. They both function to each other. The groups/organizations influence people’s words, behaviors and minds unconsciously socially or culturally.

As far as individuals’ autonomy and cultural constraints, Freud addresses that individuals give up a part of their own autonomy and submit to the restrictions of the group unconsciously rather than based on reason. Recognition of unconscious influences that groups/organizations/society make on individuals help us better understanding the development of the society and pubic administration as a whole.

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