Outline of The Republic

Book I

What is justice? Why should one be just?

Polemantus: owe friends help; owe enemies harm; giving what is fitting is justice.

Thrasymachus: justice is advantage of the stronger.

Book II

Justice is desired for sake & consequences.

1. Justice starts from surrender. Getting far away from suffering injustice–compact

2. Pursue for good things.

3. Make people live better life & good reputation.

Adeimantus: Justice is desirable for its sake.

Book III Physical & music training

Book IV (Identify justice on a city-wide level)

Adeimantus: guardians–individual happy v.s. whole city happy

build a good city, a just city.

Looking for——(virtues)—-wisdom (guardians knowledge about how to run the city), courage (fight for the city), moderation (agreement on who should rule), justice

Soul–wise, courageous, moderate–same forms & depositions

Calculation, desire, spirit

In society, each one is doing their own job; in soul, different parts do different things.

Book V. Women & Children

Political commodity

three waves equality–women & men–stronger, different roles, no distinction–soul & nature

Book VI.

Only philosophers can have knowledge

Men born with philosophical nature–courageous, high-minded, quick learners

corrupted (navigator, captain, one who knows ship)

Philosophers rule making a good city possible.

Book VII.

The allegory of the cave

Education puts knowledge into the soul

Imagination–reality (things)–truth


Four constitutions of city & man

timocracy–rulers of lovers, honor-driven man

oligarchy–rulers of the wealthy

democracy–freedom (battle between oligarchy & the poor-virtue)

tyranny–ruled by a man driven by his unlawful appetites

Book IX

Tyrannical man–ruled by lawless desires

the most unjust, the least happy

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